Vladimir Lenin was one of the leading political figures and revolutionary thinkers of the 20th century, who
masterminded the Bolshevik take-over of power in Russia in 1917, and was the architect and first head of the
Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov was born in Simbirsk on the Volga River on 22 April 1870 into a well-educated family. He excelled at
school and went on to study law. At university, he was exposed to radical thinking, and his views were also influenced by
the execution of his elder brother, a member of a revolutionary group.
Expelled from university for his radical policies, Lenin completed his law degree as an external student in 1891. He moved
to St Petersburg and became a professional revolutionary. Like many of his contemporaries, he was arrested and exiled to
Siberia, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his Siberian exile, Lenin - the pseudonym he adopted in 1901 - spent
most of the subsequent decade and a half in western Europe, where he emerged as a prominent figure in the international
revolutionary movement and became the leader of the 'Bolshevik' faction of the Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party.
In 1917, exhausted by World War One, Russia was ripe for change. Assisted by the Germans, who hoped that he would
undermine the Russian war effort, Lenin returned home and started working against the provisional government that had
overthrown the tsarist regime. He eventually led what was soon to be known as the October Revolution, but was
effectively a coup d'etat. Almost three years of civil war followed. The Bolsheviks were victorious and assumed total
control of the country. During this period of revolution, war and famine, Lenin demonstrated a chilling disregard for the
sufferings of his fellow countrymen and mercilessly crushed any opposition.