Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram, in Tamil Nadu, specialized
in Aero Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology.
Before his term as India's president, he worked as an aeronautical engineer with DRDO and ISRO. He is popularly
known as the Missile Man of India for his work on development of ballistic missile and space rocket technology.
In India he is highly respected as a scientist and as an engineer.
Kalam played a pivotal organisational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear test in 1998, the
first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. He is a professor at Anna University (Chennai) and adjunct/
visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India. With the death of R. Venkataraman
on January 27, 2009, Kalam became the only surviving Former President of India.
APJ Abdul Kalam views on certain issues have been espoused by him in his book India 2020 where he strongly
advocates an action plan to develop India into a knowledge superpower and into a developed nation by the year
2020. Kalam is credited with the view that India ought to take a more assertive stance in international relations;
he regards his work on India's nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower.