Charles Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and
transformed the way we think about the natural world.
Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire into a wealthy and well-connected
family. His maternal grandfather was china manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood, while his paternal grandfather was
Erasmus Darwin, one of the leading intellectuals of 18th century England.
Darwin himself initially planned to follow a medical career, and studied at Edinburgh University but later switched
to divinity at Cambridge. In 1831, he joined a five year scientific expedition on the survey ship HMS Beagle.
At this time, most Europeans believed that the world was created by God in seven days as described in the bible. On the
voyage, Darwin read Lyell's 'Principles of Geology' which suggested that the fossils found in rocks were actually
evidence of animals that had lived many thousands or millions of years ago. Lyell's argument was reinforced in
Darwin's own mind by the rich variety of animal life and the geological features he saw during his voyage. The
breakthrough in his ideas came in the Galapagos Islands, 500 miles west of South America. Darwin noticed that each
island supported its own form of finch which were closely related but differed in important ways.
On his return to England in 1836, Darwin tried to solve the riddles of these observations and the puzzle of how species
evolve. Influenced by the ideas of Malthus, he proposed a theory of evolution occurring by the process of natural
selection. The animals (or plants) best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing
on the characteristics which helped them survive to their offspring. Gradually, the species changes over time.